Trauma – Substance use by females is linked to traumatic events or stressors, including sexual and physical assault or abuse, sudden physical illness, an accident, or disruption in family life (Grella, 1997; IOM, 1990; Kilpatrick, Acierno, Resnick, Saunders, & Best, 1997; Kilpatrick, Resnick, Saunders, & Best, 1998; Martin, Beaumont & Kupper, 2003; Najavits et al., 1997).

Females often use alcohol or other drugs to self-medicate in an effort to cope with these traumatic events (Miranda, Meyerson, Long, Marx, & Simpson, 2002; Teusch, 2001; Young, Boyd, & Hubbell, 2002).

Women with substance use problems have been found to be significantly more likely than men to exhibit recent physical, emotional, or sexual abuse…


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